[119], He is a central character in the H. R. Hays historical novel The Takers of the City, published in 1946.[120]. In the Catholic Church, the Dominicans introduced his cause for canonization in 1976. £53 (cloth), £13.99 (paper). With the help of the archbishop, the Plan para la reformación de las Indias was conceived, and Las Casas, named priest-procurator of the Indies, was appointed to a commission to investigate the status of the Indians. One of the stated purposes for writing the account was Las Casas's fear of Spain coming under divine punishment and his concern for the souls of the native peoples. [88], The Apologetic Summary History of the People of These Indies (Spanish: Apologética historia summaria de las gentes destas Indias) was first written as the 68th chapter of the General History of the Indies, but Las Casas changed it into a volume of its own, recognizing that the material was not historical. On Bartolomé de las Casas. Las Casas and the commissioners traveled to Santo Domingo on separate ships, and Las Casas arrived two weeks later than the Hieronimytes. Pp. The two orders had very different approaches to the conversion of the Indians. He traveled to Central America, acting as a missionary among the Maya of Guatemala and participating in debates among colonial churchmen about how best to bring the natives to the Christian faith. The most influential person to take up his cause was Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, the archbishop of Toledo and future co-regent of Spain. Sepúlveda addressed Las Casas's arguments with twelve refutations, which were again countered by Las Casas. Before a council consisting of Cardinal García de Loaysa, the Count of Osorno, Bishop Fuenleal and several members of the Council of the Indies, Las Casas argued that the only solution to the problem was to remove all Indians from the care of secular Spaniards, by abolishing the encomienda system and putting them instead directly under the Crown as royal tribute-paying subjects. Demographic studies such as those of colonial Mexico by Sherburne F. Cook in the mid-20th century suggested that the decline in the first years of the conquest was indeed drastic, ranging between 80 and 90%, due to many different causes but all ultimately traceable to the arrival of the Europeans. [69], As a part of Las Casas's defense by offense, he had to argue against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. He was appointed Bishop of Chiapas, but served only for a short time before he was forced to return to Spain because of resistance to the New Laws by the encomenderos, and conflicts with Spanish settlers because of his pro-Indian policies and activist religious stance. With Cecilia Suárez, Claudette Maillé, Dario Yazbek Bernal, Juan Pablo Medina. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[c] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written in 1542 (published in Seville in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then-Prince Philip II of Spain. [citation needed], The book became an important element in the creation and propagation of the so-called Black Legend – the tradition of describing the Spanish empire as exceptionally morally corrupt and violent. [97], One persistent point of criticism has been Las Casas's repeated suggestions of replacing Indian with African slave labor. [118], The small town of Lascassas, Tennessee, in the United States has also been named after him. Las Casas thenceforth advocated for better treatment of the American Indians. [11] According to one biographer, his family were of converso heritage,[12] although others refer to them as ancient Christians who migrated from France. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. As Ocampo's ships began returning with slaves from the land Las Casas had been granted, he went to Hispaniola to complain to the Audiencia. His travels through the New World prior to 1510 when he became an ordained. The former was written as an introduction to a proposed book called Historia de las Indias, and the latter was published as a stand-alone summary of that book. Upon his return to Santo Domingo, the unsuccessful priest and political reformer abandoned his reforming activities to take refuge in religious life. Not just food markets, but also art and textile markets. To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. On August 15, 1514, Las Casas delivered a now-famous sermon declaring his intent to return the serfs to the governor of the West Indies. He oversaw the construction of a monastery in Puerto Plata on the north coast of Hispaniola, subsequently serving as prior of the convent. Created by Manolo Caro. His influence at court was so great that some even considered that he had the final word in choosing the members of the Council of the Indies. Those who survived the journey were ill-received, and had to work hard even to survive in the hostile colonies. This letter, which reinvoked the old conflict over the requirements for the sacrament of baptism between the two orders, was intended to bring Las Casas in disfavour. [15] He participated in slave raids and military expeditions against the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. The Franciscans used a method of mass conversion, sometimes baptizing many thousands of Indians in a day. The colonists, led by Diego Columbus, dispatched a complaint against the Dominicans to the King, and the Dominicans were recalled from Hispaniola.[21][22]. [111] He is also often cited as a predecessor of the liberation theology movement. LAS CASAS, BARTOLOM É DE (1474 – 1566). He became a doctrinero, lay teacher of catechism, and began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards called Indians. [31] In this early work, Las Casas advocated importing black slaves from Africa to relieve the suffering Indians, a stance he later retracted, becoming an advocate for the Africans in the colonies as well. Las Casas worked hard to convince the emperor that it would be a bad economic decision, that it would return the viceroyalty to the brink of open rebellion, and could result in the Crown losing the colony entirely. (1542) The Indies were discovered in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-two. Sepúlveda argued that the subjugation of certain Indians was warranted because of their sins against Natural Law; that their low level of civilization required civilized masters to maintain social order; that they should be made Christian and that this in turn required them to be pacified; and that only the Spanish could defend weak Indians against the abuses of the stronger ones. [107], Revisionist histories of the late 20th century have argued for a more nuanced image of Las Casas, suggesting that he was neither a saint nor a fanatic but a person with exceptional willpower and a sense of justice, which sometimes led him into arrogance, stubbornness, and hypocrisy. [14], With his father, Las Casas immigrated to the island of Hispaniola in 1502, on the expedition of Nicolás de Ovando. He put his faith in his coming audience with the king, but it never came, for King Ferdinand died on January 25, 1516. For other uses, see, Spanish Dominican friar, historian, and social reformer, Las Casas and Emperor Charles V: The peasant colonization scheme, "If one sacrifices from what has been wrongfully obtained, the offering is blemished; the gifts of the lawless are not acceptable. The Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies) had an immediate impact in Spain. In the years following his death, his ideas became taboo in the Spanish realm, and he was seen as a nearly heretical extremist. Originally planned as a six-volume work, each volume describes a decade of the history of the Indies from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 to 1520, and most of it is an eye-witness account. In 1513, as a chaplain, Las Casas participated in Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's and Pánfilo de Narváez' conquest of Cuba. Cambridge University Press, 2016, 190. [56] The encomienda had, in fact, legally been abolished in 1523, but it had been reinstituted in 1526, and in 1530 a general ordinance against slavery was reversed by the Crown. Xii+234. [26] Aided by Pedro de Córdoba and accompanied by Antonio de Montesinos, he left for Spain in September 1515, arriving in Seville in November. Early in 1522 Las Casas left the settlement to complain to the authorities. Las Casas was among those denied confession for this reason. To Las Casas's dismay Bishop Marroquín openly defied the New Laws. Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. Shortly after its publication in 1542, King Charles I passed several “New Laws” benefiting Indian serfs. Summary of cost of living in San Cristobal de las Casas. He wrote many petitions, treatises, and books on the subject of the Spanish conquest of the Americas. Regarding expenses, he argued that "this should not seem expensive or difficult, because after all, everything comes from them [the Indians] and they work for it and it is theirs. 978 0 8223 3930 4; 978 0 8223 3939 7", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Biblioteca de autor Bartolomé de las Casas, Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bartolomé_de_las_Casas&oldid=998386578, People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Spanish Roman Catholic bishops in North America, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2017, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Episcopal Church (USA); The Roman Catholic Church. The second part of the Memorial described suggestions for the social and political organization of Indian communities relative to colonial ones. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. Las Casas was resolved to see Prince Charles who resided in Flanders, but on his way there he passed Madrid and delivered to the regents a written account of the situation in the Indies and his proposed remedies. [65] After a year he had made himself so unpopular among the Spaniards of the area that he had to leave. In return for his participation, Las Casas was granted an encomienda—a Spanish royal land grant—and an allotment of Indian serfs. In 1520 Las Casas's concession was finally granted, but it was a much smaller grant than he had initially proposed; he was also denied the possibilities of extracting gold and pearls, which made it difficult for him to find investors for the venture. Wars in which you have destroyed such an infinite number of them by homicides and slaughters never heard of before. Email * Phone. El Señor Jorge Da Silva Villagrán, the company founder and owner, used to work as an apprentice for Pierri Company for fifteen years. All in all, modern historians tend to disregard the numerical figures given by Las Casas, but they maintain that his general picture of a violent and abusive conquest represented reality. Devastated, Las Casas reacted by entering the Dominican monastery of Santa Cruz in Santo Domingo as a novice in 1522 and finally taking holy vows as a Dominican friar in 1523. He also argues that Las Casas failed to realize that by seeking to replace indigenous spirituality with Christianity, he was undertaking a religious colonialism that was more intrusive than the physical one. Subscribe to keep up with new CPX content! The bread of the needy is the life of the poor; whoever deprives them of it is a man of blood." [29] In the winter of 1515, King Ferdinand lay ill in Plasencia, but Las Casas was able to get a letter of introduction to the king from the Archbishop of Seville, Diego de Deza. On what authority have you waged such detestable wars against these people who dealt quietly and peacefully on their own lands? Bartolome de Las Casas Book Review 973 Words | 4 Pages. One detractor, the abolitionist David Walker, called Las Casas a "wretch... stimulated by sordid avarice only," holding him responsible for the enslavement of thousands of Africans. [46] To make matters worse, his detractors used the event as evidence of the need to pacify the Indians using military means. In 1502 he left for Hispaniola, the island that today contains the states of Dominican Republic and Haiti. This was his "Memorial de Remedios para Las Indias" of 1516. Some historians, such as Castro, argue that he was more of a politician than a humanitarian and that his liberation policies were always combined with schemes to make colonial extraction of resources from the natives more efficient. Motolinia would later be a fierce critic of Las Casas, accusing him of being all talk and no action when it came to converting the Indians. It was in essence a comparative ethnography comparing practices and customs of European and American cultures and evaluating them according to whether they were good or bad, seen from a Christian viewpoint. Las Casas committed himself to producing 15,000 ducats of annual revenue, increasing to 60,000 after ten years, and to erecting three Christian towns of at least 40 settlers each. While waiting, Las Casas produced a report that he presented to the Bishop of Burgos, Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, and secretary Lope Conchillos, who were functionaries in complete charge of the royal policies regarding the Indies; both were encomenderos. In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. [47] There he continued his theological studies, being particularly attracted to Thomist philosophy, and there is little information about his activities in the following ten years. Here, Las Casas argued, Indians could be better governed, better taught and indoctrinated in the Christian faith, and would be easier to protect from abuse than if they were in scattered settlements. Travelling back to Spain to recruit more missionaries, he continued lobbying for the abolition of the encomienda, gaining an important victory by the passage of the New Laws in 1542. . In his early writings, he advocated the use of African slaves instead of Natives in the West Indian colonies but did so without knowing that the Portuguese were carrying out "brutal and unjust wars in the name of spreading the faith". Zhe Cui Prof. Nicholas MKTG-342 Case Analysis Feb 27, 2015 La Casa de Las Botas 1.Summary La Casa de Las Botas is a small company which has luxurious retail space in downtown Buenos Aires and a little workshop located about 10km to the west. [57], When the hearings started in 1542, Las Casas presented a narrative of atrocities against the natives of the Indies that would later be published in 1552 as "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias". Some privileges were also granted to the initial 50 shareholders in Las Casas's scheme. He is said to have preached, "Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? [105] Other historians, such as John Fiske writing in 1900, denied that Las Casas's suggestions affected the development of the slave trade. Lingering for a while in the Dominican convent of Granada, he got into conflict with Rodrigo de Contreras, Governor of Nicaragua, when Las Casas vehemently opposed slaving expeditions by the Governor. Las Casas's influence turned the favor of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca. [7], Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Seville in 1484, on 11 November. Bartolomé de Las Casas debates the subjugation of the Indians, 1550 | This tract, a summary of a debate concerning the subjugation of Indians, contains the arguments of Bartolomé de Las Casas, the Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico, and Juan Gines Sepulveda, an influential Spanish philosopher, concerning the treatment of American Indians in the New World. 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